📘 قراءة كتاب Survey of Environmental Geobiochemistry أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
The above listing should not be taken too literally; all three kinds of processes have probably
proceeded simultaneously, and over a number of cycles. Since the earth is losing approximately four times as much heat as is generated by radioactive decay, the principal driving
force of primary and secondary differentiation has gradually slowed down. Partial melting of
the upper mantle brought about further fractionation as silicon-containing materials of low
density migrated outward to form a crust. In its early stages the stronger granitic rocks had
not yet appeared, and the crust was mechanically weak. Upwelling flows of lava would break
the surface, and the weight of the solidified lava would cause the crust to subside. In some
places, magma would solidify underground, forming low-density rock (batholiths) that would
eventually rise by buoyancy and push up overlying crust. These mountain-building periods
probably occurred in 6-8 major episodes, each lasting about 800 million years.
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
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