❞ كتاب  Oxford Guide to English Grammar pdf ❝

❞ كتاب Oxford Guide to English Grammar pdf ❝

Oxford Guide to English Grammar

Oxford University Press
Walton Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP
Oxford New York
Auckland Bangkok Buenos Aires Cape Town
Chennai Dar es Salaam Delhi Hong Kong Istanbul
Karachi Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne
Mexico City Mumbai Nairobi São Paulo Shanghai
Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto
with an associated company in Berlin
OXFORD a n d OXFORD ENGLISH
are trade marks of Oxford University Press
ISBN 0 19 431351 4 (paperback)
ISBN 0 19 431334 4 (hardback)
© Oxford University Press 1994
First published 1994
Seventh impression 2002
No unauthorized photocopying
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of Oxford University Press.
This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not,
by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or
otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent
in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is
published and without a similar condition including this
condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.
Illustrated by Heather Clarke
Typeset in Utopia by
Tradespools Ltd, Frome, Somerset
Printed in Hong Kong

Contents
Introduction VII
Acknowledgements VIII
Key to symbols IX
Sentence and text
1 English grammar 1
2 The simple sentence 6
3 Statements, questions, imperatives and exclamations 15
4 Questions and answers 25
5 Leaving out and replacing words 42
6 Information and emphasis 52
7 Spoken English and written English 64
Verb forms
8 The verb phrase 75
9 Verb tenses and aspects 82
10 The future 95
11 Be, have and do 104
12 Modal verbs 113
13 The passive 130
Infinitive, gerund and participles
14 The infinitive 144
15 The gerund 159
16 Participles 167
The noun phrase
17 Nouns and noun phrases 175
18 Agreement 191
19 The articles: a/an and the 198
20 Possessives and demonstratives 213
21 Quantifiers 219
22 Pronouns 233
23 Numbers and measurements 245
Adjectives, adverbs and prepositions
24 Adjectives 251
25 Adverbials 260
26 Comparison 278
27 Prepositions 286
28 Phrasal verbs and patterns with prepositions 302
Main clauses and sub clauses
29 Sentences with more than one clause 317
30 And, or, but, so etc 323
31 Adverbial clauses 327
32 Conditional clauses 333
33 Noun clauses 341
34 Direct and indirect speech 346
35 Relative clauses 356
Word forms
36 Word-building 367
37 Word endings: pronunciation and spelling 376
38 Irregular noun plurals 380
39 Irregular verb forms 382
Appendix
40 American English 389
Glossary 397
Index 404
Introduction
The Oxford Guide to English Grammar is a systematic account of grammatical
forms and the way they are used in standard British English today. The emphasis is
on meanings and how they govern the choice of grammatical pattern.
The book is thorough in its coverage but pays most attention to points that are of
importance to intermediate and advanced learners of English, and to their
teachers. It will be found equally suitable for quick reference to details and for the
more leisured study of broad grammar topics.
A useful feature of the book is the inclusion of example texts and conversations,
many of them authentic, to show how grammar is used in connected writing and
in speech.
Language changes all the time. Even though grammar changes more slowly than
vocabulary, it is not a set of unalterable rules. There are sometimes disagreements
about what is correct English and what is incorrect. 'Incorrect' grammar is often
used in informal speech. Does that make it acceptable? Where there is a difference
between common usage and opinions about correctness, I have pointed this out.
This information is important for learners. In some situations it may be safer for
them to use the form which is traditionally seen as correct. The use of a correct
form in an unsuitable context, however, can interfere with understanding just as
much as a mistake. To help learners to use language which is appropriate for a
given occasion, I have frequently marked usages as formal, informal, literary
and so on.
How to use this book
Any user of a reference book of this kind will rely on a full and efficient index, as is
provided in the Oxford Guide (pages 404 to 446). In addition, there is a summary at
the beginning of each chapter which gives a bird's eye view, with examples, of the
grammar covered in the chapter as a whole and gives references to the individual
sections which follow.

-
من كتب تعلم اللغة الإنجليزية - مكتبة كتب تعلم اللغات.

نُبذة عن الكتاب:
Oxford Guide to English Grammar pdf

1994م - 1441هـ
Oxford Guide to English Grammar

Oxford University Press
Walton Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP
Oxford New York
Auckland Bangkok Buenos Aires Cape Town
Chennai Dar es Salaam Delhi Hong Kong Istanbul
Karachi Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne
Mexico City Mumbai Nairobi São Paulo Shanghai
Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto
with an associated company in Berlin
OXFORD a n d OXFORD ENGLISH
are trade marks of Oxford University Press
ISBN 0 19 431351 4 (paperback)
ISBN 0 19 431334 4 (hardback)
© Oxford University Press 1994
First published 1994
Seventh impression 2002
No unauthorized photocopying
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of Oxford University Press.
This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not,
by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or
otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent
in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is
published and without a similar condition including this
condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.
Illustrated by Heather Clarke
Typeset in Utopia by
Tradespools Ltd, Frome, Somerset
Printed in Hong Kong

Contents
Introduction VII
Acknowledgements VIII
Key to symbols IX
Sentence and text
1 English grammar 1
2 The simple sentence 6
3 Statements, questions, imperatives and exclamations 15
4 Questions and answers 25
5 Leaving out and replacing words 42
6 Information and emphasis 52
7 Spoken English and written English 64
Verb forms
8 The verb phrase 75
9 Verb tenses and aspects 82
10 The future 95
11 Be, have and do 104
12 Modal verbs 113
13 The passive 130
Infinitive, gerund and participles
14 The infinitive 144
15 The gerund 159
16 Participles 167
The noun phrase
17 Nouns and noun phrases 175
18 Agreement 191
19 The articles: a/an and the 198
20 Possessives and demonstratives 213
21 Quantifiers 219
22 Pronouns 233
23 Numbers and measurements 245
Adjectives, adverbs and prepositions
24 Adjectives 251
25 Adverbials 260
26 Comparison 278
27 Prepositions 286
28 Phrasal verbs and patterns with prepositions 302
Main clauses and sub clauses
29 Sentences with more than one clause 317
30 And, or, but, so etc 323
31 Adverbial clauses 327
32 Conditional clauses 333
33 Noun clauses 341
34 Direct and indirect speech 346
35 Relative clauses 356
Word forms
36 Word-building 367
37 Word endings: pronunciation and spelling 376
38 Irregular noun plurals 380
39 Irregular verb forms 382
Appendix
40 American English 389
Glossary 397
Index 404
Introduction
The Oxford Guide to English Grammar is a systematic account of grammatical
forms and the way they are used in standard British English today. The emphasis is
on meanings and how they govern the choice of grammatical pattern.
The book is thorough in its coverage but pays most attention to points that are of
importance to intermediate and advanced learners of English, and to their
teachers. It will be found equally suitable for quick reference to details and for the
more leisured study of broad grammar topics.
A useful feature of the book is the inclusion of example texts and conversations,
many of them authentic, to show how grammar is used in connected writing and
in speech.
Language changes all the time. Even though grammar changes more slowly than
vocabulary, it is not a set of unalterable rules. There are sometimes disagreements
about what is correct English and what is incorrect. 'Incorrect' grammar is often
used in informal speech. Does that make it acceptable? Where there is a difference
between common usage and opinions about correctness, I have pointed this out.
This information is important for learners. In some situations it may be safer for
them to use the form which is traditionally seen as correct. The use of a correct
form in an unsuitable context, however, can interfere with understanding just as
much as a mistake. To help learners to use language which is appropriate for a
given occasion, I have frequently marked usages as formal, informal, literary
and so on.
How to use this book
Any user of a reference book of this kind will rely on a full and efficient index, as is
provided in the Oxford Guide (pages 404 to 446). In addition, there is a summary at
the beginning of each chapter which gives a bird's eye view, with examples, of the
grammar covered in the chapter as a whole and gives references to the individual
sections which follow.


.
المزيد..

تعليقات القرّاء:

Oxford Guide to English Grammar

Oxford University Press
Walton Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP
Oxford New York
Auckland Bangkok Buenos Aires Cape Town
Chennai Dar es Salaam Delhi Hong Kong Istanbul
Karachi Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne
Mexico City Mumbai Nairobi São Paulo Shanghai
Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto
with an associated company in Berlin
OXFORD a n d OXFORD ENGLISH
are trade marks of Oxford University Press
ISBN 0 19 431351 4 (paperback)
ISBN 0 19 431334 4 (hardback)
© Oxford University Press 1994
First published 1994
Seventh impression 2002
No unauthorized photocopying
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of Oxford University Press.
This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not,
by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or
otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent
in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is
published and without a similar condition including this
condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.
Illustrated by Heather Clarke
Typeset in Utopia by
Tradespools Ltd, Frome, Somerset
Printed in Hong Kong

Contents
Introduction VII
Acknowledgements VIII
Key to symbols IX
Sentence and text
1 English grammar 1
2 The simple sentence 6
3 Statements, questions, imperatives and exclamations 15
4 Questions and answers 25
5 Leaving out and replacing words 42
6 Information and emphasis 52
7 Spoken English and written English 64
Verb forms
8 The verb phrase 75
9 Verb tenses and aspects 82
10 The future 95
11 Be, have and do 104
12 Modal verbs 113
13 The passive 130
Infinitive, gerund and participles
14 The infinitive 144
15 The gerund 159
16 Participles 167
The noun phrase
17 Nouns and noun phrases 175
18 Agreement 191
19 The articles: a/an and the 198
20 Possessives and demonstratives 213
21 Quantifiers 219
22 Pronouns 233
23 Numbers and measurements 245
Adjectives, adverbs and prepositions
24 Adjectives 251
25 Adverbials 260
26 Comparison 278
27 Prepositions 286
28 Phrasal verbs and patterns with prepositions 302
Main clauses and sub clauses
29 Sentences with more than one clause 317
30 And, or, but, so etc 323
31 Adverbial clauses 327
32 Conditional clauses 333
33 Noun clauses 341
34 Direct and indirect speech 346
35 Relative clauses 356
Word forms
36 Word-building 367
37 Word endings: pronunciation and spelling 376
38 Irregular noun plurals 380
39 Irregular verb forms 382
Appendix
40 American English 389
Glossary 397
Index 404
Introduction
The Oxford Guide to English Grammar is a systematic account of grammatical
forms and the way they are used in standard British English today. The emphasis is
on meanings and how they govern the choice of grammatical pattern.
The book is thorough in its coverage but pays most attention to points that are of
importance to intermediate and advanced learners of English, and to their
teachers. It will be found equally suitable for quick reference to details and for the
more leisured study of broad grammar topics.
A useful feature of the book is the inclusion of example texts and conversations,
many of them authentic, to show how grammar is used in connected writing and
in speech.
Language changes all the time. Even though grammar changes more slowly than
vocabulary, it is not a set of unalterable rules. There are sometimes disagreements
about what is correct English and what is incorrect. 'Incorrect' grammar is often
used in informal speech. Does that make it acceptable? Where there is a difference
between common usage and opinions about correctness, I have pointed this out.
This information is important for learners. In some situations it may be safer for
them to use the form which is traditionally seen as correct. The use of a correct
form in an unsuitable context, however, can interfere with understanding just as
much as a mistake. To help learners to use language which is appropriate for a
given occasion, I have frequently marked usages as formal, informal, literary
and so on.
How to use this book
Any user of a reference book of this kind will rely on a full and efficient index, as is
provided in the Oxford Guide (pages 404 to 446). In addition, there is a summary at
the beginning of each chapter which gives a bird's eye view, with examples, of the
grammar covered in the chapter as a whole and gives references to the individual
sections which follow.


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سنة النشر : 1994م / 1415هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 5.7 ميجا بايت .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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