📘 قراءة كتاب BASIC CONCEPTS IN SOCIOLINGUISTICS أونلاين
هذا القسم يحتوى علي مجموعة من المصادر التي تهتم بدراسة اللغويات الإجتماعية.
اللغويات الإجتماعية هو فرع من علم اللغويات أو اللسانيات، يهتم بدراسة تأثير جميع جوانب المجتمع، ويتضمن ذلك المعايير الثقافية والتوقعات والبيئة وطريقة استخدام اللغة والآثار المترتبة على استخدام اللغة في المجتمع. وتختلف اللسانيات الاجتماعية عن اجتماعيات اللغة حيث تركز اللسانيات الاجتماعية على تأثير المجتمع على اللغة، بينما تركز اجتماعيات اللغة على تأثير اللغة على المجتمع. وتتداخل اللسانيات الاجتماعية إلى حد كبير مع علم التخاطب، ولها ارتباطاً تاريخياً وثيقاً مع علم الإنسان اللغوي، وقد حصل مؤخراً جدل حول الفرق بين المجالين.
ويَدرس هذا العلم أيضاً كيف تختلف لسن اللغة بين الجماعات التي تفصلها متغيرات اجتماعية معينة مثل العرق والدين والجنس والمستوى الاجتماعي ومستوى التعليم والعمر وما إلى ذلك، وكيفية استخدام إنشاء هذه القواعد والالتزام بها لتصنيف الأفراد في طبقات اجتماعية أو اجتماعية اقتصادية. وكما يختلف استخدام أي لغة من مكان إلى آخر (لكنة) يختلف استخدام اللغة أيضاً بين الطبقات الاجتماعية، وهذه هي اللهجات الاجتماعية التي يهتم علماء اللسانيات الاجتماعية بدراستها.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language. It differs from sociology of language, which focuses on the effect of language on a society. Sociolinguistics overlaps considerably with pragmatics. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology, and the distinction between the two fields has been questioned.
It also studies how language varieties differ between groups separated by certain social variables (e.g., ethnicity, religion, status, gender, level of education, age, etc.) and how creation and adherence to these rules is used to categorize individuals in social or socioeconomic classes. As the usage of a language varies from place to place, language usage also varies among social classes, and it is these sociolects that sociolinguistics studies.
The social aspects of language were in the modern sense first studied by Indian and Japanese linguists in the 1930s, and also by Louis Gauchat in Switzerland in the early 1900s, but none received much attention in the West until much later. The study of the social motivation of language change, on the other hand, has its foundation in the wave model of the late 19th century. The first attested use of the term sociolinguistics was by Thomas Callan Hodson in the title of his 1939 article "Sociolinguistics in India" published in Man in India. Sociolinguistics in the West first appeared in the 1960s and was pioneered by linguists such as William Labov in the US and Basil Bernstein in the UK. In the 1960s, William Stewart and Heinz Kloss introduced the basic concepts for the sociolinguistic theory of pluricentric languages, which describes how standard language varieties differ between nations
2 Traditional sociolinguistic interview
3 Fundamental concepts
3.1 Speech community
3.2 High prestige and low prestige varieties
3.3 Social network
4 Differences according to class
4.1 Class aspiration
4.2 Social language codes
4.2.1 Restricted code
4.2.2 Elaborated code
4.2.3 The codes and child development
4.3 Covert prestige
5 Sociolinguistic variables
For example, a sociolinguist might determine through study of social attitudes that a particular vernacular would not be considered appropriate language use in a business or professional setting. Sociolinguists might also study the grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and other aspects of this sociolect much as dialectologists would study the same for a regional dialect.
The study of language variation is concerned with social constraints determining language in its contextual environment. Code-switching is the term given to the use of different varieties of language in different social situations.
William Labov is often regarded as the founder of the study of sociolinguistics. He is especially noted for introducing the quantitative analysis of language variation and change, making the sociology of language into a scientific discipline.
Traditional sociolinguistic interview
The sociolinguistic interview is an integral part of collecting data for sociolinguistic studies. There is an interviewer, who is conducting the study, and a subject, or informant, who is the interviewee. In order to get a grasp on a specific linguistic form and how it is used in the dialect of the subject, a variety of methods are used to elicit certain registers of speech. There are five different styles, ranging from formal to casual. The most formal style would be elicited by having the subject read a list of minimal pairs (MP). Minimal pairs are pairs of words that differ in only one phoneme, such as cat and bat. Having the subject read a word list (WL) will elicit a formal register, but generally not as formal as MP. The reading passage (RP) style is next down on the formal register, and the interview style (IS) is when an interviewer can finally get into eliciting a more casual speech from the subject. During the IS the interviewer can converse with the subject and try to draw out of them an even more casual sort of speech by asking him to recall childhood memories or maybe a near death experience, in which case the subject will get deeply involved with the story since strong emotions are often attached to these memories. Of course, the most sought-after type of speech is the casual style (CS). This type of speech is difficult if not impossible to elicit because of the Observer's Paradox. The closest one might come to CS in an interview is when the subject is interrupted by a close friend or family member, or perhaps must answer the phone. CS is used in a completely unmonitored environment where the subject feels most comfortable and will use their natural vernacular without ov
ertly thinking about it.
BASIC CONCEPTS IN
UNIVERSITY OF OUARGLA ( Algeria)
BASIC CONCEPTS IN
UNIVERSITY OF OUARGLA ( Algeria)
In this paper, we will try to find out the essence of the social
function of language. Language and society are intertwined because a
society moves with language. A language defines the linguistic behaviour
of a group of people in a given society. We will find out what
sociolinguistics means by examining various definitions and unearth their
points of convergence.
Key Words: sociolinguistics, language, society
Sociolinguistics is a developing branch of linguistics and
sociology which examines the individual and social variation of language
(Spolsky, 2010). Just as regional variation of language can give a lot of
information about the place the speaker is from, social variation tells
about the roles performed by a given speaker within one community
(ibid.). Sociolinguistics is also considered as a branch of sociology in that
it shows the relationship between language use and the social basis for
such use (Hudson, 1996). It differs from sociology of language in that the
focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language,
whereas the latter’s interest is on the language’s effect on the society
(Bell, 1976). Sociolinguistics is a practical, scientific discipline which
researches into the language that is actually used in order to formulate
theories about language change (ibid.).
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سنة النشر : 2016م / 1437هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 11 .
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