📘 قراءة كتاب Basic Semantics أونلاين
هذا القسم يحتوى علي علم الدلالة
علم الدلالةهو علم لغوي حديث يبحث في الدلالة اللغوية، والتي يلتزم فيها حدود النظام اللغوي والعلامات اللغوية، دون سواها، ومجاله: "دراسة المعنى اللغوي على صعيد المفردات والتراكيب" ، وحالياً هناك العديد من الدراسات التي تهتم بعلم السيمانتك باستخدام الحاسبات وكذا استخدام السمانتك في مجال البحث الإلكتروني والطب والصناعة ، بالإضافة إلى أن هناك نموذجا متكاملا لوصف علم السيمانتك ويفصل في سبع شفافيات كل شفافية لها العديد من الباحثين العاملين بها
Semantics (from Ancient Greek: σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant")[a] is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. It is concerned with the relationship between signifiers—like words, phrases, signs, and symbols—and what they stand for in reality, their denotation.
In International scientific vocabulary semantics is also called semasiology. The word semantics was first used by Michel Bréal, a French philologist. It denotes a range of ideas—from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language for denoting a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation. This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal enquiries, over a long period of time, especially in the field of formal semantics. In linguistics, it is the study of the interpretation of signs or symbols used in agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts. Within this view, sounds, facial expressions, body language, and proxemics have semantic (meaningful) content, and each comprises several branches of study. In written language, things like paragraph structure and punctuation bear semantic content; other forms of language bear other semantic content.
The formal study of semantics intersects with many other fields of inquiry, including lexicology, syntax, pragmatics, etymology and others. Independently, semantics is also a well-defined field in its own right, often with synthetic properties. In the philosophy of language, semantics and reference are closely connected. Further related fields include philology, communication, and semiotics. The formal study of semantics can therefore be manifold and complex.
Semantics contrasts with syntax, the study of the combinatorics of units of a language (without reference to their meaning), and pragmatics, the study of the relationships between the symbols of a language, their meaning, and the users of the language. Semantics as a field of study also has significant ties to various representational theories of meaning including truth theories of meaning, coherence theories of meaning, and correspondence theories of meaning. Each of these is related to the general philosophical study of reality and the representation of meaning. In 1960s psychosemantic studies became popular after Osgood's massive cross-cultural studies using his semantic differential (SD) method that used thousands of nouns and adjective bipolar scales. A specific form of the SD, Projective Semantics method uses only most common and neutral nouns that correspond to the 7 groups (factors) of adjective-scales most consistently found in cross-cultural studies (Evaluation, Potency, Activity as found by Osgood, and Reality, Organization, Complexity, Limitation as found in other studies). In this method, seven groups of bipolar adjective scales corresponded to seven types of nouns so the method was thought to have the object-scale symmetry (OSS) between the scales and nouns for evaluation using these scales. For example, the nouns corresponding to the listed 7 factors would be: Beauty, Power, Motion, Life, Work, Chaos, Law. Beauty was expected to be assessed unequivocally as “very good” on adjectives of Evaluation-related scales, Life as “very real” on Reality-related scales, etc. However, deviations in this symmetric and very basic matrix might show underlying biases of two types: scales-related bias and objects-related bias. This OSS design meant to increase the sensitivity of the SD method to any semantic biases in responses of people within the same culture and educational background.
2 Montague grammar
3 Prototype theory
4 Theories in semantics
4.1 Formal semantics
4.2 Truth-conditional semantics
4.3 Conceptual semantics
4.4 Cognitive semantics
4.5 Lexical semantics
4.6 Cross-cultural semantics
4.7 Computational semantics
5 Computer science
5.1 Programming languages
5.2 Semantic models
In linguistics, semantics is the subfield that is devoted to the study of meaning, as inherent at the levels of words, phrases, sentences, and larger units of discourse (termed texts, or narratives). The study of semantics is also closely linked to the subjects of representation, reference and denotation. The basic study of semantics is oriented to the examination of the meaning of signs, and the study of relations between different linguistic units and compounds: homonymy, synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy, hyponymy, meronymy, metonymy, holonymy, paronyms. A key concern is how meaning attaches to larger chunks of text, possibly as a result of the composition from smaller units of meaning. Traditionally, semantics has included the study of sense and denotative reference, truth conditions, argument structure, thematic roles, discourse analysis, and the linkage of all of these to
This is an introductory book to semantics for undergraduate students
with some linguistic background. However, non specialized previous
semantic knowledge is needed to understand it.
The aim of the book is to help readers to grasp the main issues dealt
with in semantic analysis in connection with linguistic analysis. This
book does not support any particular semantic or linguistic theory, but,
rather, it tries to offer the reader some of the most relevant approaches
in semantics, emphasizing its particular contributions and, sometimes,
noting its weak points.
The book is organized in ten lessons, which are grouped in three
different units. Unit I, An introduction to the science of meaning, includes
two lessons dedicated to deal with basic concepts such as units of
analysis, linguistic theories and their relations with the most widely used
semantic concepts. Lessons three and four deal with the relations and
overlappings of semantics and related disciplines, such as logic and
pragmatics. Unit II, Paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations, constitutes
the central part of this book and deals with the main topics in semantic
analysis. This analysis is taken from the perspective that the key to the
understanding of the meaning of a word should always be attempted in
connection with other related words either present or absent in the
linguistic structure that the word is part of. Unit III, An introduction to
cognitive semantics, reviews the most basic aspects concerning human
cognition and some related theories.
semantics pdf books
semantics شرح مبسط
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سنة النشر : 2012م / 1433هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 3.1MB .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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