❞ كتاب Successful Writing ❝

❞ كتاب Successful Writing ❝

Successful Writing

As you begin this chapter, you may be wondering why you need an introduction.
After all, you have been writing and reading since elementary school. You
completed numerous assessments of your reading and writing skills in high school
and as part of your application process for college. You may write on the job, too.
Why is a college writing course even necessary?
When you are eager to get started on the coursework in your major that will
prepare you for your career, getting excited about an introductory college writing
course can be difficult. However, regardless of your field of study, honing your
writing skills—and your reading and critical-thinking skills—gives you a more solid
academic foundation.
In college, academic expectations change from what you may have experienced in
high school. The quantity of work you are expected to do is increased. When
instructors expect you to read pages upon pages or study hours and hours for one
particular course, managing your work load can be challenging. This chapter
includes strategies for studying efficiently and managing your time.
Scott McLean -
من الكتابة Writing كتب تعلم اللغة الإنجليزية - مكتبة كتب تعلم اللغات.

نُبذة عن الكتاب:
Successful Writing

2012م - 1441هـ
Successful Writing

As you begin this chapter, you may be wondering why you need an introduction.
After all, you have been writing and reading since elementary school. You
completed numerous assessments of your reading and writing skills in high school
and as part of your application process for college. You may write on the job, too.
Why is a college writing course even necessary?
When you are eager to get started on the coursework in your major that will
prepare you for your career, getting excited about an introductory college writing
course can be difficult. However, regardless of your field of study, honing your
writing skills—and your reading and critical-thinking skills—gives you a more solid
academic foundation.
In college, academic expectations change from what you may have experienced in
high school. The quantity of work you are expected to do is increased. When
instructors expect you to read pages upon pages or study hours and hours for one
particular course, managing your work load can be challenging. This chapter
includes strategies for studying efficiently and managing your time.

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المزيد..

تعليقات القرّاء:

هذا القسم يهتم بالكتابة باللغة الإنجليزية .

الكتابة تُمثّل لُغة نصية عبر استخدام رسومات رمزية (حروف)، ويمكن بها توثيق النطق ونقل الفكَر والأحداث إلى رموز يمكن قراءتها حسب نموذج مخصص لكل لغة. وبدأ الإنسان الكتابة عن طريق الرسم ثم تطورت هذه الرموز إلى أحرف لكي تختصر وقت الكتابة.

ولقد بدأ الإنسان الكتابة مستخدما الوسائل المتاحة لديه حيث بدأ باستخدام النقش على الحجر لتدوين ما يريده ثم انتقل إلى الكتابة على أوعية أخرى كالرق والبردي والورق الذي اخترع في بداية القرن الثاني الميلادي. ثم ما لبث الإنسان الأكثر تقدما أن اخترع الآلات التي تساعده على الكتابة مثل الآلات الكاتبة والمطابع، وأخيرا أصبح الإنسان يستخدم الكتابة من خلال أجهزة متقدمة مثل الحواسيب، وأصبح يتعامل اليوم بما يسمى الكتب الإلكترونية.

Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language with signs and symbols. For languages that utilize a writing system, inscriptions can complement spoken language by creating a durable version of speech that can be stored for future reference or transmitted across distance. Writing, in other words, is not a language, but a tool used to make languages readable.[1] Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary, grammar, and semantics, with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols. The result of the activity of writing is called a text, and the interpreter or activator of this text is called a reader.

H.G. Wells argued that writing has the ability to "put agreements, laws, commandments on record. It made the growth of states larger than the old city states possible. It made a continuous historical consciousness possible. The command of the priest or king and his seal could go far beyond his sight and voice and could survive his death".[3] As human societies emerged, collective motivations for the development of writing were driven by pragmatic exigencies like keeping history, maintaining culture, codifying knowledge through curricula and lists of texts deemed to contain foundational knowledge (e.g., The Canon of Medicine) or artistically exceptional (e.g., a literary canon), organizing and governing societies through the formation of legal systems, census records, contracts, deeds of ownership, taxation, trade agreements, treaties, and so on. For example, around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration in Mesopotamia outgrew human memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form.[4] In both ancient Egypt and Mesoamerica, on the other hand, writing may have evolved through calendric and political necessities for recording historical and environmental events.

Individual motivations for writing include improvised additional capacity for the limitations of human memory (e.g., to-do lists, recipes, reminders, logbooks, maps, the proper sequence for a complicated task or important ritual), dissemination of ideas (as in an essay, monograph, broadside, petition, or manifesto), imaginative narratives and other forms of storytelling, personal or business correspondence, and lifewriting (e.g., a diary or journal).


Contents
1    Writing systems
1.1    Logographies
1.2    Syllabaries
1.3    Alphabets
1.3.1    Abjads
1.3.2    Abugidas
1.4    Featural scripts
1.5    Historical significance of writing systems
1.6    Tools and materials
2    History
2.1    Mesopotamia
2.2    Egypt
2.3    Elamite scripts
2.3.1    Cretan and Greek scripts
2.4    China
2.5    Indus Valley
2.6    Central Asia
2.7    Phoenician writing system and descendants
2.8    Mesoamerica
2.9    South America
  

Successful Writing

As you begin this chapter, you may be wondering why you need an introduction.
After all, you have been writing and reading since elementary school. You
completed numerous assessments of your reading and writing skills in high school
and as part of your application process for college. You may write on the job, too.
Why is a college writing course even necessary?
When you are eager to get started on the coursework in your major that will
prepare you for your career, getting excited about an introductory college writing
course can be difficult. However, regardless of your field of study, honing your
writing skills—and your reading and critical-thinking skills—gives you a more solid
academic foundation.
In college, academic expectations change from what you may have experienced in
high school. The quantity of work you are expected to do is increased. When
instructors expect you to read pages upon pages or study hours and hours for one
particular course, managing your work load can be challenging. This chapter
includes strategies for studying efficiently and managing your time.

 

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سنة النشر : 2012م / 1433هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 46.8MB .
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