❞ كتاب developing writing ❝

❞ كتاب developing writing ❝

developing writing


The goal of this book is to take the student from the mechanics of basic sentence writing to the ability to construct a simple paragraph. The
vocabulary and the structures have been planned chapter by chapter,
from simple to more complex, and the lessons build on each other. For
this reason, the students will probably benefit the most if they do the
exercises in each chapter in the order they are presented. The same is
true of the order of the chapters: information presented early in the
book will be helpful for the writing tasks in the later chapters.
The amount of time needed to work through a chapter depends on
the level of the students, the length of the class period, and the
teacher’s decision about homework. Some groups may finish a chapter
in two hours, with two hours of outside work. Other groups may do all
the exercises in class in four or five hours. Two sample lesson plans are
suggested at the end of this section, one with homework assignments
and one without homework
Patricia Wilcox Peterson -
من الكتابة Writing كتب تعلم اللغة الإنجليزية - مكتبة كتب تعلم اللغات.

نُبذة عن الكتاب:
developing writing

2003م - 1441هـ
developing writing


The goal of this book is to take the student from the mechanics of basic sentence writing to the ability to construct a simple paragraph. The
vocabulary and the structures have been planned chapter by chapter,
from simple to more complex, and the lessons build on each other. For
this reason, the students will probably benefit the most if they do the
exercises in each chapter in the order they are presented. The same is
true of the order of the chapters: information presented early in the
book will be helpful for the writing tasks in the later chapters.
The amount of time needed to work through a chapter depends on
the level of the students, the length of the class period, and the
teacher’s decision about homework. Some groups may finish a chapter
in two hours, with two hours of outside work. Other groups may do all
the exercises in class in four or five hours. Two sample lesson plans are
suggested at the end of this section, one with homework assignments
and one without homework

.
المزيد..

تعليقات القرّاء:

هذا القسم يهتم بالكتابة باللغة الإنجليزية .

الكتابة تُمثّل لُغة نصية عبر استخدام رسومات رمزية (حروف)، ويمكن بها توثيق النطق ونقل الفكَر والأحداث إلى رموز يمكن قراءتها حسب نموذج مخصص لكل لغة. وبدأ الإنسان الكتابة عن طريق الرسم ثم تطورت هذه الرموز إلى أحرف لكي تختصر وقت الكتابة.

ولقد بدأ الإنسان الكتابة مستخدما الوسائل المتاحة لديه حيث بدأ باستخدام النقش على الحجر لتدوين ما يريده ثم انتقل إلى الكتابة على أوعية أخرى كالرق والبردي والورق الذي اخترع في بداية القرن الثاني الميلادي. ثم ما لبث الإنسان الأكثر تقدما أن اخترع الآلات التي تساعده على الكتابة مثل الآلات الكاتبة والمطابع، وأخيرا أصبح الإنسان يستخدم الكتابة من خلال أجهزة متقدمة مثل الحواسيب، وأصبح يتعامل اليوم بما يسمى الكتب الإلكترونية.

Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language with signs and symbols. For languages that utilize a writing system, inscriptions can complement spoken language by creating a durable version of speech that can be stored for future reference or transmitted across distance. Writing, in other words, is not a language, but a tool used to make languages readable.[1] Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary, grammar, and semantics, with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols. The result of the activity of writing is called a text, and the interpreter or activator of this text is called a reader.

H.G. Wells argued that writing has the ability to "put agreements, laws, commandments on record. It made the growth of states larger than the old city states possible. It made a continuous historical consciousness possible. The command of the priest or king and his seal could go far beyond his sight and voice and could survive his death".[3] As human societies emerged, collective motivations for the development of writing were driven by pragmatic exigencies like keeping history, maintaining culture, codifying knowledge through curricula and lists of texts deemed to contain foundational knowledge (e.g., The Canon of Medicine) or artistically exceptional (e.g., a literary canon), organizing and governing societies through the formation of legal systems, census records, contracts, deeds of ownership, taxation, trade agreements, treaties, and so on. For example, around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration in Mesopotamia outgrew human memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form.[4] In both ancient Egypt and Mesoamerica, on the other hand, writing may have evolved through calendric and political necessities for recording historical and environmental events.

Individual motivations for writing include improvised additional capacity for the limitations of human memory (e.g., to-do lists, recipes, reminders, logbooks, maps, the proper sequence for a complicated task or important ritual), dissemination of ideas (as in an essay, monograph, broadside, petition, or manifesto), imaginative narratives and other forms of storytelling, personal or business correspondence, and lifewriting (e.g., a diary or journal).


Contents
1    Writing systems
1.1    Logographies
1.2    Syllabaries
1.3    Alphabets
1.3.1    Abjads
1.3.2    Abugidas
1.4    Featural scripts
1.5    Historical significance of writing systems
1.6    Tools and materials
2    History
2.1    Mesopotamia
2.2    Egypt
2.3    Elamite scripts
2.3.1    Cretan and Greek scripts
2.4    China
2.5    Indus Valley
2.6    Central Asia
2.7    Phoenician writing system and descendants
2.8    Mesoamerica
2.9    South America
  

 

developing writing

The goal of this book is to take the student from the mechanics of basic sentence writing to the ability to construct a simple paragraph. The
vocabulary and the structures have been planned chapter by chapter,
from simple to more complex, and the lessons build on each other. For
this reason, the students will probably benefit the most if they do the
exercises in each chapter in the order they are presented. The same is
true of the order of the chapters: information presented early in the
book will be helpful for the writing tasks in the later chapters.
The amount of time needed to work through a chapter depends on
the level of the students, the length of the class period, and the
teacher’s decision about homework. Some groups may finish a chapter
in two hours, with two hours of outside work. Other groups may do all
the exercises in class in four or five hours. Two sample lesson plans are
suggested at the end of this section, one with homework assignments
and one without homework


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سنة النشر : 2003م / 1424هـ .
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المؤلف:
Patricia Wilcox Peterson -

كتب Patricia Wilcox Peterson . المزيد..

كتب Patricia Wilcox Peterson
الناشر:
United States Information Agency Washington, DC
كتب United States Information Agency
Washington, DC.المزيد.. كتب United States Information Agency Washington, DC
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